Researchers seeking resources on internationalizing teacher education often turn to these key resources and organizations:
- Internationalizing Teacher Education, published at the NAFSA website
- Resources for Internationalizing Teacher Education, a list provided by Educators Abroad
- Resources for Internationalizing Education, links provided by the Consortium for Overseas Student Teaching
- Teacher Preparation for Global Age, a report published by the Longview Foundation.
When specifically seeking information about overseas student teaching, the book Intercultural Student Teaching: A Bridge to Global Competence is often identified as a leading resource. The Resources for International Field Experiences page on GTE provides more information about these resources.
A wide body of literature focused on international field experiences is available in journals and other publications. This annotated bibliography summarizes the literature available as a resource to scholars interested in this field.
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International Field Experiences Annotated Bibliography (By Author)
Alfaro, C. & Quezada, R. (2010). International teacher professional development: Teacher reflections of authentic teaching and learning experiences. Teaching Education, 21 (1) p. 47-59.
Pre-service teachers who participated in a professional development program in Mexico participated in this study that sought to determine the development of teaching ideology as a result of pre-service teacher participation. The program relies heavily on reflection, which shows reflection during training periods produces reflective practitioners. Pre-service teachers incorporated a more global approach in their later classrooms and incorporated lessons learned during their time abroad into their daily curriculum.
Batey, J. J., & Lupi, M. H. (2012). Reflections on interns’ culture developed through a short-term international internship. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39 (3) p. 25-44.
The article discusses a study that examined the impact of a short-term internship in Plymouth, England on the cultural awareness and cultural competence of education students from the University of North Florida (UNF). It examined how the experience affected them as new teachers, using the Cross Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) as a measure. While students approached new cultural experiences differently (some diving in head on, others hanging back and observing new cultural norms) but both groups exhibited Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy – indicators identified on the CCAI that are associated with cultural competence. Program alumni have exhibited greater self-confidence, adaptability, flexibility, and positive outlook on their future as teachers.
Bryan, S. L. & Sprague, M. M. (2012). The Effect of Overseas Internships on Early Teaching Experiences. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 70 (4) p. 100 – 201.
Researchers interviewed individuals who had participated in an international student teaching opportunity at one university to gauge how their experience affected their employment prospects and teaching practices after they went on to become teachers. Participants reported that their experiences abroad were a positive influence on getting a job, more respect for student differences, and more patience and appreciation for second language learners. The authors found that these teachers had a significantly higher retention rate and that they pursued Master’s at a higher rate, especially when compared to other teachers in the same state. They also found that these educators integrated global perspectives into their teaching, and had learned to be flexible as teachers.
Clement, M. C. & Outlaw, M. E. (2012). Student Teaching Abroad: Learning about Teaching, Culture, and Self. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 38 (4) p. 180-183.
The authors share experiences of students who completed their student teaching requirements abroad through the COST program. Using emails from students, they share students’ experiences while student teaching in an international setting, reporting that they learned about culture, teaching, and themselves as educators.
Expanding on existing literature, this article re-examines data from a qualitative study of students who participated in overseas student teaching experiences. It reviews literature that explores the impact on participants of study abroad generally, and student teaching abroad specifically. He notes that the literature suggests that participants develop empathy, global mindedness, intercultural sensitivity, and knowledge of diversity. The author concludes that international experiences are crucial to fully experience these changes.
Cushner, K. & Brennan, S. (2007). Intercultural Student Teaching: A Bridge to Global Competence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
This book is one of the most comprehensive resources on international student teaching. In ten chapters, the text provides information on how to start a program, on courses to prepare participants, on impacts of overseas student teaching, and on how to promote reflection during and after international field experiences.
Cushner, K. & Mahon, J. (2002). Overseas Student Teaching: Affecting Personal, Professional, and Global Competence in and Age of Globalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 6 (2) p. 44-58.
This qualitative study examined whether international student teaching experiences developed participant’s intercultural communication skills. The authors surveyed 50 pre-service teachers who participated in a student teaching abroad experience in several countries to examine what participants perceived they gained from their experiences abroad. They found that participants reported a change in their cultural beliefs about themselves and others, developed a stronger sense of self-efficacy, and expanded their worldviews, suggesting that students developed professionally and personally during these experiences and gained skills that better equip them to teach diverse learners.
Cwick, S. & Benton, J. (Spring, 2009). Teacher preparation programs: Making student teaching abroad an effective option. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, p. 37-42.
To support schools of education considering international student teaching experiences, the authors outline the advantages and disadvantages of different types of student teaching abroad programs, considering both duration (short vs. long term) and models (one-way, bi-lateral, and multi-lateral exchanges). They do not recommend one particular model or type, but rather provide readers the information they need when attempting to provide these experiences.
Devillar, R., & Jiang, B. (2009). U.S. student teachers in Belize, China and Mexico: patterns of cultural, professional, and character development. Journal of Emerging Knowledge on Emerging Markets, 1 (1) p. 1-18.
The analysis and framework of this study examines similarities and differences among student teaching abroad experiences in Belize, Mexico and China. The results showed that all participants in three groups considered that the international teaching experience had a positive impact on their teaching and increased the flexibility of classroom instruction. The student teachers also indicated that they developed an authentic appreciation of a different culture. Moreover, most of the participants showed a positive attitude change toward second language use in the classroom. In addition, the authors suggest that international contexts that have similar multicultural settings found within U.S. public schools may be more conducive to student teachers’ learning and future practice.
DeVillar, R., & Jiang, B. (2012). From Student Teaching Abroad to Teaching in the U.S. Classroom: Effects of Global Education on Local Instructional Practices. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39 (3) p.7-24.
This article researches the impact of international student teaching experiences on teaching practices in US classrooms. The study emphasizes the impact of international experiences on their instructional practices, cultural responsiveness toward diverse populations, and the curricular approaches of teachers who had completed student teaching abroad. The study reveals that significant value was added within each of these areas for students who completed an international student teaching experience.
Gaudino, A. C., Moss, D. M., & Wilson, E. V. (2012). Key issues in an international clinical experience for graduate students in Education: implications for policy and practice. Journal of International Education and Leadership, 2 (3) p. 1-16.
Research about international clinical experiences in the field of education is limited. Therefore, this study provides significant data about actual benefits and challenges of an international clinical experience in education. The authors conducted focus groups with graduate students from The University of Connecticut and the University of Virginia who completed their clinical experiences in England. Subjects reported that the benefits were far greater than they anticipated, and that they far outweighed the challenges. They developed skills to self-reflect and to teach in more diverse environments. Participants felt more self-confident, and expressed that their experiences help them stand out in the job searching process.
Gill, S. (2007). Overseas students’ intercultural adaptation as intercultural learning: a transformative framework. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 37 (2) p. 167-183.
This one-year qualitative study investigated a small cohort of Chinese postgraduate students’ experience in a British university. The author argues that the intercultural adaptation is a process of intercultural learning. This process offers the students profound changes and the opportunities of transforming their understanding of the learning experience, awareness of others and knowledge of the self, values and worldview.
In this study, the researchers surveyed principals in K-12 public schools in Iowa to determine if teacher applicants with student teaching experience abroad are perceived as more qualified than candidates who completed their student teaching requirements in the US. Responses indicated that administrators overwhelmingly agree that international student teachers exhibited an expanded worldview and respect for diverse cultures. Respondents were more mixed regarding general professional skills such as ambition, self-confidence, and flexibility, though they a majority agreed that educators with international experience were more qualified in the areas identified. When asked if applicants who completed student teaching overseas, however, 58% responded that those candidates were definitely or more likely qualified when compared to peers who had not, while 36% responded that they were not likely more qualified and 4% indicated they were definitely not.
Jian, B., Coffey, D., DeVillar, R., & Bryan, S. (2010). Student Teaching Abroad Inter-Group Outcomes: A Comparative, Country-Specific Analysis. Journal of Global and International Studies, 2 (1) p. 36-55.
This study presents a method to frame and analyze similarities and differences among two groups of pre-service teachers who participated in an international experience in Belize. The results identify the type and degree of cultural, professional, and character development and any emergent common group patterns. Individuals underwent similar experiences but the intergroup dynamics differed with each group. This led to significant impacts on student teacher reflections and experiences.
Karaman, A. & Tochon, F. (2010). Worldviews, Criticisms, and the Peer Circle: A Study of the Experiences of a Student Teacher in an Overseas School. Foreign Language Annals, 43 (4) p. 583-604.
The focus of this study was the linguistic elements that led to a deeper understanding of cognition and emotion among pre-service teachers participating in an international teaching experience in Ecuador. The sole subject of this study was a prospective Spanish teacher. Her journals, recorded lessons, reflections, surveys, and recorded conversations provided the data for this study. The methodology focused on word frequency before, during, and after the international experience. This revealed areas of the program where organizers can better prepare students (such as housing) for their experiences or ways for pre-service teachers to learn more from their experiences to better support professional development.
Landerholm, E., & Chacko, J. (2013). Student Teaching Abroad: An Experience for 21st Century Teachers. Washington, DC: ERIC - Institute of Education Sciences.
The impact of the 21st century has greatly impacted the lives of teachers. The integration of technology within the classroom has significantly changed instructional practices. Additionally, within classrooms diversity has increased significantly. A response to this has been for teachers to better incorporate multiple worldviews within the classroom that better incorporates the multicultural makeup of American classrooms. To better prepare pre-service teachers for teaching in diverse classrooms, institutions such as Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago have developed an international teaching experience for pre-service. Reflections from this program, which takes place in South Korea, reveals students feel better prepared to teach in diverse classrooms as a result of their international experience. They reported that the opportunity helped them expand their worldview, use a global perspective in their classroom, and feel better prepared to teach in multicultural settings.
Lasonen, J. (2010). Internationalization of higher education: A case study on college music teachers’ intercultural expertise. International Education, 40 (1) p. 39-50.
This case study presents three peoples’ experiences, learning, intercultural competence, and activities from teaching to composing through narrative-biographical data analysis on the organizational learning in intercultural education. The findings indicate that intercultural education is built upon certain types of thinking and value orientation, which direct one’s choices and decisions.
Researchers asked fifty students who participated in Consortium for Overseas Teaching (COST) programs to complete an open-ended survey after their student teaching experiences abroad to explore how to optimize cultural learning during these experiences. Their analysis revealed that students who participated in overseas teaching experiences grew personally and professionally from their experiences – they reported increased self-efficacy, a change in their beliefs about themselves and others (including questioning of stereotypes and of their own culture), and greater global mindedness and appreciation of diversity. The authors conclude that more of these opportunities should be available to pre-service teachers because they act as a catalyst to cross-cultural learning.
Lee, Jackie F. K. (2011). International Field Experiences – What Do Student Teachers Learn? Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36 (10) p. 1-21.
Student teachers from Hong Kong participated in an international teaching experience in New Zealand. Program participants learned new teaching strategies and felt learning about a different education system enhanced their professional development. Participants also discussed ways to incorporate different attributes from New Zealand classrooms into their Hong Kong classrooms. This includes classroom management strategies and approaches to classroom dynamics. Students from Hong Kong noted a significant increase in their English fluency and speaking confidence as a result of this experience.
Longview Foundation. (2008). Teacher Preparation for a Global Age. Washington, DC: Longview.
This report outlines internationalization efforts in colleges of education in the United States. It examines all aspects of internationalization, but has a section devoted to student teaching abroad.
Mahan, J. & Stachowski, L. (2001). Self-reported Reshaping Effects of Foreign Student Teaching Upon Young Teachers. Education, 112 (3) p. 329-346.
This article examined the effects of international student teaching experiences on students who participated in the Overseas Student Teaching Project (now the Global Gateway for Teachers), which is based out of Indiana University in Bloomington. Researchers collected data from surveys completed by participants at the end of the experience and from weekly reflection assignments. The surveys reveal that over 70% students reported personal or social changes, while only 27% reported school or teaching related changes as a result of their international student teaching experiences. In addition to the surveys, the research also incorporated the weekly reflective assignments collected throughout the experience. These reflections indicated high participant satisfaction on a weekly basis that also contributed to the overall, end of experience reflection on positive, individual growth for student teachers.
Mahon, J. (2007). A field of dreams? Overseas student teaching as a catalyst towards internationalizing teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34 (1) p. 133-149.
Mahon explores international student teaching opportunities as a catalyst for internationalizing a teacher education program. Drawing on personal experience creating programs through several models, she weighs the advantages of different types of programs, addresses commonly cited challenges to providing these opportunities, licensure requirements and policy considerations, placement, supervision, and financial matters.
Malewski, E. & Phillion, J. (2009). International field experiences: The impact of class, gender, and experiences of pre-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25 (1) p. 52-60.
The authors spent five years exploring how class, gender, and race complicated perceptions and experiences of pre-service teachers during an international field experience in Honduras. Data collection includes observations, group discussions, course assignments, on-site focus group interviews, and post-trip individual interviews. The study reveals class, gender and race shaped and re-shaped pre-service teachers' perceptions of self, and others. The authors conclude that the international cross-cultural experiences provide opportunities for pre-service teachers to critically examine their perspectives, and their positions in the host community during study abroad.
Martin, L. C. (2012). International student teaching in non-western cultures: Impact on first-year teachers. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
This qualitative study examines the intercultural development of five individuals who completed their student teaching in non-western cultures, and the impact of those overseas experiences on their classrooms during their first year of teaching. The results suggest that participants developed intercultural skills, and later applied these skills to their classrooms in the United States and abroad. The author suggests that the non-Western placements led to deeper and more impactful intercultural learning.
This is a case study of a pre-service teacher’s experiences during a teacher education study abroad program in London. The research was predicated on a belief that teachers must learn to mind the culture gap that may exist between students and teachers. The researcher urges teacher educators to challenge pre-service teachers’ ethnocentric worldviews and to prepare them to teach culturally diverse student populations. Findings reveal that participation in the study abroad teacher education program positively influenced intercultural development.
Moseley, C., Reeder, S., & Armstrong, N. (2008). “I Don’t Eat White.” Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 10 (1) p. 55-71.
This qualitative study followed three student teachers over one year – before, during, and after – during an international field experience in Costa Rica. Students initially reported feeling anxious about what to expect in the months leading up to their experience, and in country, they noted that basic daily living required a great deal of problem solving. Participants reported gaining the strongest teaching skills as a result of teaching English Language Learners, a source of transformational learning for both participants and the authors.
Ochoa, A. (2010). International education in higher education: A developing process of engagement in teacher preparation programs. Teaching Education, 21 (1) p. 103-112.
By reviewing relevant literature related to internationalizing teacher education that appeared in Teaching Education, this article discusses the need for providing global perspectives in teacher preparation programs. The article addresses international experiences for pre-service teachers, and how they may be best incorporated into education programs. By addressing areas where there are tensions, the article seeks to influence the development of international education programs.
Pense, H. M. & Macgillivray, I. K. (2006). The impact of an international field experience on pre-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 (1) p. 14-25.
This article examines the impact of international field experiences on fifteen pre-service teachers in four countries. The source of data included interactions in a pre-departure course and journals while abroad. The findings suggest that as a result of their experiences, students experienced professional and personal growth, including better appreciation for other cultures, respect for cultural differences, and an awareness of the importance of feedback and support as teachers.
Phillion, J., Malewski, E. L., Sharma, S. & Wang, Y. (2009). Reimagine the curriculum: future teachers and study abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, p. 323-339.
This qualitative study examined how pre-service teachers’ experiences in understanding ethnicity, race, class, and gender affect the process of teaching and learning in diverse settings during a three-week summer study abroad program in Honduras. The findings suggest that the cross-cultural interaction provide pre-service teachers with the intellectual and critical starting points for multicultural awareness of the educational, social, and political relationships between their lives and other cultures.
Quezada, R. (2004). Beyond Educational Tourism: Lesson Learned While Student Teaching Abroad. The International Education Journal, 5 (4) p. 458-465.
The author presents a picture of the types of international student teaching opportunities available in the United States, based on a literature review. He discusses different types of programs available, differences between programs, and student learning while student teaching abroad. He also provides a list of recommendations and challenges faculty encounter when attempting to provide these experiences.
Quezada, R. & Alfaro, C. (2007). Biliteracy Teachers’ Self-Reflection of Their Accounts While Student Teaching Abroad: Speaking from the “Other Side.” Teacher Education Quarterly, 34 (1) p. 95-113.
This study addresses the personal and professional dynamics biliteracy teachers negotiate in their progression toward certification as a result of an international teaching experience. The article examines the International Teacher Education Program through the California State University System. This credentialing program provides prospective elementary biliteracy teachers with the opportunity to gain international experience to meet the standards set forth by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. Participants noticed a chance in their perception of inequalities, their role as a change agent, the significant of student-teacher relationships, the way they respond to internal and external pressures after student teaching abroad.
Rodriguez, E. (2011). What Pre-Service Teachers Bring Home When They Travel Abroad: Rethinking Teaching Through a Short International Immersion Experience. Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly, 5 (3) p. 289-305.
This study seeks to understand the impact of an international experience on pre-service teachers in terms of how their understanding of education and the role of educators changed as a result of their experience. The program took place in Bolivia, and research gathered from participants revealed multiple realities. Pre-service teachers enhanced their understanding of education as a community-based enterprise. Additionally, pre-service teachers developed new instructional methods and tools that increased their sense of agency as teachers. Pre-service teachers were seen to be more culturally sensitive as a result of their participation in the program, and felt more prepared to teach in diverse classrooms.
Sahin, M. (2008). Cross-cultural experience in pre-service teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 (7) p. 1777-1790.
The study investigated the effect of an international internship program. Twenty-six graduate students in a private university in Turkey participated a two-month internship in a mid-western state in the United States. Student teachers worked with mentors in pairs or triads in six high schools in different subject areas for six weeks. The findings show that the student teachers’ experiences and the overall internship program with its cultural components contributed in a positive way to student teachers’ professional and personal development. Student teachers also indicate the experiences helped them increase their cultural awareness. The findings also indicate that the presence of international students in the U.S. schools and communities helped American students and others have a better idea of other countries and cultures.
Sharma, S., Phillion, J., Malewski, E. (2011). Examining the Practice of Critical Reflection for Developing Pre-Service Teachers’ Multicultural Competencies: Findings from a Study Abroad Program in Honduras. Issues in Teacher Education, 20 (2) 9-22.
This article researches the impact of critical reflection on pre-service teachers’ multicultural competencies for personal and professional growth. The research was collected from a group of pre-service teachers who participated in an international experience in Honduras. Critical reflection was used to assess the data in this research study based on John Dewey’s notion of reflective practice. The study reveals that multicultural education as learned through international experiences is best assessed via critical reflection. Well-organized programs that incorporate meaningful structure provide the most effective means to develop multicultural competency among pre-service teachers. Exposing pre-service teachers to drastically different cultures and education systems encourages deeper critical reflection among program participants.
Sharma, S., Rahatzad, J., & Phillion, J. (2013). How Pre-service Teachers Engage in the Process of (De)Colonization: Findings from an International Field Experience in Honduras. Interchange (43) p. 363-377.
This research identifies how pre-service teachers engage in decolonization to challenge neoliberal influences in education. Additionally, the study examined the development of multicultural awareness as a result of an international student teaching experience in Honduras. This study seeks to contribute to research on combating neoliberal education structures that negatively impact student development. Through the lens of pre-service teacher experiences in Honduras, the study suggests lessons learned that increase multicultural awareness among pre-service teachers.
Shively, J. M. & Misco, T. (2012). “Student teaching abroad will help you get a job”: Exploring administrator perceptions of international experiences for pre-service teachers. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 11 (1) p. 52-68.
In order to investigate whether international experiences influence administrators’ hiring decisions in public schools, the authors of this study utilized case study methodology study to subjects with hiring authority in several Midwestern states in the US. Findings suggest that hiring officials view international experience positively, and 44% indicated that it influenced their hiring decisions. Subjects also reported expect that they expect the candidate has increased sensitivity to diversity, but that it is up to the candidate to demonstrate that (s)he can transfer skills gained from the experience. The researchers also found that overseas experiences are valued in some subject areas over others, and the location of the overseas experience was important – experience in certain countries was valued over others.
Stachowski, L. & Sparks, T. (2007). Thirty Years Later and 2,000 Student Teachers Later: An Overseas Student Teaching Project That is Popular, Successful, and Replicable. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34 (1) p. 115 – 132.
The authors review three previous studies on the effects of an international student teaching experience on participants as a jumping point for their analysis of new data from students who participated in the same program. They report that students felt prepared for the experience, that that they adjusted to their schools and communities, and that the benefits of their experiences far outweighed the challenges. They offer suggestions for program developers including: strategies for preparing students, when to offer these experiences in a student’s career, allowing individual experiences, tips on providing structure and focus, and tapping into existing programs.
This study assessed the impact of international student teaching experiences from the perspective of international cooperating teachers. The reason for accepting an American pre-service teacher varied by teacher, but all recognized the opportunities and benefits from having an international visitor in their classrooms. Cooperating teachers were pleased with the enthusiasm and energy of student teachers. Placement sites noted the considerable personal growth of student teachers, particularly with respect to personal growth and global awareness. Cooperating teachers provided constructive feedback for the program organizers to better prepare pre-service teachers for the international experience. This includes ensuring open lines of communication were available between program organizers, student teachers, and cooperating teachers throughout the program preparation and international experience.
Thomas, S. (2012). The influence an overseas teaching experience has on teaching decisions. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Boston University, Boston, MA.
This research examined how the licensed teachers’ teaching decisions were different after their overseas teaching experience. The researcher conducted this study through a questionnaire, face-to-face interviews, and classroom observations. The investigation reported four areas that are influenced by an overseas teaching experience: (1) global perspective, (2) cultural empathy, (3) culturally relevant pedagogy and curriculum choices, and (4) personal growth. The results suggest that teachers who have taught overseas may have more cultural empathy for students of other backgrounds and English-language proficiency and a willingness to develop curriculum that encompasses more of a global perspective. There were no clear differences among the teachers in terms of gender, race, or experience.
Van Reken, R. E. & Rushmore, S. (2012). Thinking globally when teaching locally. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 45 (2) p. 60-68.
Kappa Delta Pi sends student teachers to countries throughout the world. The program provides student teachers with the type of cross-cultural experiences that naturally lead to the creation of global awareness in the classroom. Authors discuss the five dimensions of global awareness required by student teachers to develop cross-cultural skills and attitudes.
Walters, L. M., Garii, B., & Walters, T. (2009). Learning globally, teaching locally: Incorporating international exchange and intercultural learning into pre-service teacher training. Intercultural Education, 20, p. 151-158.
This article describes the impact of teaching‐related travel on novice teachers’ cultural understanding and professional identity. The authors discuss how prospective teachers challenge their perceptions of their professional selves through international field experiences. The goal of this article is to initiate a conversation that explores the internationalization of teacher training programs. They hope that the cross-cultural teaching experiences will create globally aware and culturally sensitive educators and students.
Zhao, L., Meyers, L., & Meyers, B. (2009). Cross-cultural immersion in China: Preparing pre-service elementary teachers to work with diverse student populations in the United States. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 37 (3) p. 295-317.
This qualitative study is positioned within the theoretical frameworks of culturally responsive pedagogy and cross-cultural immersion experiences. The research examined ten American per-service teachers’ teaching and learning experiences in China. Through data analysis, five themes emerged: (1) new understanding and respecting Chinese culture; (2) developing empathetic dispositions towards non-English speaking students; (3) exchanging teaching strategies and resources; (4) reflecting on professional and personal growth; (5) and initiating a proactive stance as culturally responsive change agents. The research indicates that cultural immersion experience encourages neophyte educators to not only learn about others, but also learn from and with others.
Global Teacher Education would like to thank GTE Graduate Research Intern Annelise Hammond-Mulack and Shu Ching Chang, a graduate student at Kent State University, for their extensive work on this bibliography. GTE also thanks the members of the Advisory Committee on International Field Experiences for their input on this content. Caitlin Haugen, Executive Director of GTE also contributed to this article.